UnixServerAdmin

Server Administration & Management

backup_via_network.bat

@echo off

REM ———
REM BACKUP
REM ———
ECHO ——————————————————-
ECHO CLOSE ALL PROGRAMS and APPLICATIONS NOW!!
ECHO ——————————————————-
ECHO.
ECHO Your hard drive is about to be searched for Documents,
ECHO Databases, Spreadsheets, and Email storage files.
ECHO.
ECHO All files of these types will be saved to
ECHO your REMOVABLE DEVICE in their original
ECHO directories\folders.
ECHO.
ECHO This will replace any previous backup on the
ECHO removable drive.
ECHO.

pause

set mm=%date:~4,2%
set dd=%date:~7,2%
set yy=%date:~10,4%
net use \\192.168.1.2
md \\192.168.0.2\backup\%mm%-%dd%-%yy%
xcopy c:\backup\data\* \\backup\datasrv\%mm%-%dd%-%yy% /e

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May 27, 2013 Posted by | Shell Script, Windows | , | Leave a comment

backup_via_date.bat

cd c:\
set mm=%date:~4,2%
set dd=%date:~7,2%
set yy=%date:~10,4%
md e:\backup\%mm%-%dd%-%yy%
xcopy c:\backup\* e:\backup\%mm%-%dd%-%yy% /E /F /H

May 22, 2013 Posted by | Shell Script, Windows | , | Leave a comment

backup_all_drive.bat

set mm=%date:~4,2%
set dd=%date:~7,2%
set yy=%date:~10,4%
md e:\backup\%mm%-%dd%-%yy%
xcopy c:\backup\data\*   e:\backup\%mm%-%dd%-%yy% /e

May 17, 2013 Posted by | Shell Script, Windows | , | Leave a comment

RAID Levels

RAID_0 RAID_1RAID_0+1RAID_10RAID_5RAID_50   RAID_60RAID_6

May 12, 2013 Posted by | RAID, Tips & Tricks | , | Leave a comment

RAID Disk Space Calculator

Raid 0 (Stripe)

Raid 1 (Mirror) — 2 Drives

Raid 5 (Drives with Parity) — Minimum 3 Drives

Raid 6 (Drives with Double Parity) — Minimum 4 Drives

Raid 10 (Mirror+Stripe) or 0+1 (Stripe+Mirror) — Minimum 4 Drives

Raid 50 (Parity+Stripe) — Minimum 6 Drives

Raid 60 (Double Parity+Stripe) — Minimum 8 Drives

May 7, 2013 Posted by | RAID, Tips & Tricks | , | 2 Comments

RAID Types – 0, 1, 5, 6, 0+1, 10, 50, 60

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. RAID is a method of combining several hard drives into one unit. It offers fault tolerance and higher throughput levels than a single hard drive or group of independent hard drives. RAID levels 0, 1, 10 and 5 are the most popular.

The acronym RAID, originally coined at UC-Berkeley in 1987, stood for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.

RAID Configurations

 RAID_0
RAID 0 splits data across drives, resulting in higher data throughput. The performance of this configuration is extremely high, but a loss of any drive in the array will result in data loss. This level is commonly referred to as striping.Minimum number of drives required: 2Performance: High

Redundancy: Low

Efficiency: High

 Advantages:

  • High performance
  • Easy to implement
  • Highly efficient (no parity overhead)

Disadvantages:

  • No redundancy
  • Limited business use cases due to no fault tolerance
 RAID_1
RAID 1 writes all data to two or more drives for 100% redundancy: if either drive fails, no data is lost. Compared to a single drive, RAID 1 tends to be faster on reads, slower on writes. This is a good entry-level redundant configuration. However, since an entire drive is a duplicate, the cost per megabyte is high. This is commonly referred to as mirroring.Minimum number of drives required: 2Performance: Average

Redundancy: High

Efficiency: Low

 Advantages:

  • Fault tolerant
  • Easy to recover data in case of drive failure
  • Easy to implement

Disadvantages:

  • Highly inefficient (100% parity overhead)
  • Not scalable (becomes very costly as number of disks increase)
 RAID_5
RAID 5 stripes data at a block level across several drives, with parity equality distributed among the drives. The parity information allows recovery from the failure of any single drive. Write performance is rather quick, but because parity data must be skipped on each drive during reads, reads are slower. The low ratio of parity to data means low redundancy overhead.Minimum number of drives required: 3Performance: Average

Redundancy: High

Efficiency: High

 Advantages:

  • Fault tolerant
  • High efficiency
  • Best choice in multi-user environments which are not write performance sensitive

Disadvantages:

  • Disk failure has a medium impact on throughput
  • Complex controller design
 RAID_6
RAID 6 is an upgrade from RAID 5: data is striped at a block level across several drives with double parity distributed among the drives. As in RAID 5, parity information allows recovery from the failure of any single drive. The double parity gives RAID 6 additional redundancy at the cost of lower write performance (read performance is the same), and redundancy overhead remains low.Minimum number of drives required: 4Performance: Average

Redundancy: High

Efficiency: High

Advantages:

  • Fault tolerant – increased redundancy over RAID 5
  • High efficiency
  • Remains a great option in multi-user environments which are not write performance sensitive

Disadvantages:

  • Write performance penalty over RAID 5
  • More expensive than RAID 5
  • Disk failure has a medium impact on throughput
  • Complex controller design
 RAID_0+1
RAID 0+1 is a mirror (RAID 1) array whose segments are striped (RAID 0) arrays. This configuration combines the security of RAID 1 with an extra performance boost from the RAID 0 striping.Minimum number of drives required: 4Performance: Very High

Redundancy: High

Efficiency: Low

Advantages:

  • Fault tolerant
  • Very high performance

Disadvantages:

  • Expensive
  • High Overhead
  • Very limited scalability
 RAID_10
RAID 10 is a striped (RAID 0) array whose segments are mirrored (RAID 1). RAID 10 is a popular configuration for environments where high performance and security are required. In terms of performance it is similar to RAID 0+1. However, it has superior fault tolerance and rebuild performance.Minimum number of drives required: 4Performance: Very High

Redundancy: Very High

Efficiency: Low

Advantages:

  • Extremely high fault tolerance – cnder certain circumstances, RAID 10 array can sustain multiple simultaneous drive failures
  • Very high performance
  • Faster rebuild performance than 0+1

Disadvantages:

  • Very expensive
  • High overhead
  • Limited scalability
 RAID_50
RAID 50 combines RAID 5 parity and stripes it as in a RAID 0 configuration. Although high in cost and complexity, performance and fault tolerance are superior to RAID 5.Minimum number of drives required: 6Performance: High

Redundancy: High

Efficiency: Average

Advantages:

  • Higher fault tolerance than RAID 5
  • Higher performance than RAID 5
  • Higher efficiency than RAID 5

Disadvantages:

  • Very expensive
  • Very complex / difficult to implement
RAID_60
RAID 60 combines RAID 6 double parity and stripes it as in a RAID 0 configuration. Although high in cost and complexity, performance and fault tolerance are superior to RAID 6.Minimum number of drives required: 8Performance: High

Redundancy: High

Efficiency: Average

Advantages:

  • Higher fault tolerance than RAID 6
  • Higher performance than RAID 6
  • Higher efficiency than RAID 6

Disadvantages:

  • Very expensive
  • Very complex / difficult to implement

May 2, 2013 Posted by | RAID, Tips & Tricks | , | Leave a comment